Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Regents of the University of California v. Bakke

The Regents of the University of California v. Allan Bakke (1978), was a landmark case decided by the United States Supreme Court. The decision had historical and legal significance because it upheld affirmative action, declaring that race could be one of several determining factors in college admission policies, but rejected the use of racial quotas. Fast Facts: Regents of the University of California v. Bakke Case Argued: Oct. 12, 1977Decision Issued: June 26, 1978Petitioner: Regents of the University of CaliforniaRespondent: Allan Bakke, a 35-year-old white man who had applied twice for admission to the University of California Medical School at Davis and was rejected both timesKey Question: Did the University of California violate the 14th Amendments Equal Protection Clause, and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, by practicing an affirmative action policy that resulted in the repeated rejection of Bakkes application for admission to its medical school?Majority Decision: Justices Burger, Brennan, Stewart, Marshall, Blackman, Powell, Rehnquist, StevensDissenting: Justice WhiteRuling: The Supreme Court upheld affirmative action, ruling that race could be one of several determining factors in college admission policies, but it rejected the use of racial quotas as unconstitutional. Case History In the early 1970s, many colleges and universities across America were in the beginning stages of making major changes to their admissions programs in an effort to diversify the student body by increasing the number of minority students on campus. This effort was particularly challenging due to the 1970s massive increase of students applying to medical and law schools. It increased the competition and negatively impacted the efforts to create campus environments that promoted equality and diversity. Admission policies that relied predominantly on candidates grades and test scores was an unrealistic approach for the schools that wanted to increase the minority population on campus.   Dual Admission Programs In 1970, the University of California Davis School of Medicine (UCD) was receiving 3,700 applicants for a mere 100 openings. At the same time, UCD administrators were committed to working with an affirmative action plan often referred to as a quota or set-aside program. It was set up with two admissions programs in order to increase the number of disadvantaged students admitted to the school.  There was the regular admissions program and the special admissions program.Each year 16 out of 100 places were reserved for disadvantaged students and minorities including (as stated by the university), blacks, Chicanos, Asians, and American Indians. Regular Admissions Program Candidates who quailed for the regular admissions program had to have an undergraduate grade point average (GPA) above 2.5. Some of the qualifying candidates were then interviewed. Those who passed were given a score based on their performance on the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT), science grades, extracurricular activities, recommendations, awards and other criteria that made up their benchmark scores. An admissions committee would then make a decision on which candidates would be accepted into the school. Special Admissions Program Candidates accepted into the special admissions programs were minorities or those who were economically or educationally disadvantaged. The special admissions candidates did not have to have a grade point average above 2.5 and they did not compete with the benchmark scores of the regular admission applicants.   From the time that the dual admissions program was implemented the 16 reserved spots were filled by minorities, despite the fact that many white applicants applied for the special disadvantaged program. Allan Bakke In 1972, Allan Bakke was a 32-year-old white male working as an engineer at NASA, when he decided to pursue his interest in medicine. Ten years earlier, Bakke had graduated from the University of Minnesota with a degree in mechanical engineering and a grade-point average of 3.51 out of 4.0 and was asked to join the national mechanical engineering honor society. He then joined the U.S. Marine Corps for four years which included a seven-month combat tour of duty in Vietnam. In 1967, he became a captain and was given an honorable discharge. After leaving the Marines he went to work for National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) as a research engineer.   Bakke continued going to school and in June 1970, he earned his masters degree in mechanical engineering, but despite this, his interest in medicine continued to grow. He was missing some of chemistry and biology courses required for admission into medical school so he attended night classes at San Jose State University and Stanford University. He completed all the prerequisites and had an overall GPA of 3.46. During this time he worked part-time as a volunteer in the emergency room at El Camino Hospital in Mountain View, California. He scored an overall 72 on the MCAT, which was three points higher than the average applicant to UCD and 39 points higher than the average special program applicant. In 1972, Bakke applied to UCD. His biggest concern was being rejected due to his age. He had surveyed 11 medical schools; all who said that he was over their their age limit. Age discrimination was not an issue in the 1970s. In March he was invited to interview with Dr. Theodore West who described Bakke as a very desirable applicant who he recommended.  Two months later, Bakke received his rejection letter. Angered by how the special admissions program was being managed, Bakke contacted his lawyer, Reynold H. Colvin, who prepared a letter for Bakke to give to the medical schools chairman of the admissions committee, Dr. George Lowrey. The letter, which was sent in late May, included a request that Bakke was placed on the wait-list and that he could register during the fall of 1973 and take courses until an opening became available. When Lowrey failed to reply, Covin prepared a second letter in which he asked the chairman if the special admissions program was an illegal racial quota. Bakke was then invited to meet with Lowreys assistant, 34-year-old Peter Storandt so that the two could discuss why he was rejected from the program and to advise him to apply again. He suggested that if he was rejected again he may want to take UCD to court; Storandt had a few names of lawyers that could possibly help him if he decided to go in that direction. Storandt was later disciplined and demoted for displaying unprofessional behavior when meeting with Bakke. In August 1973, Bakke applied for early admission into UCD. During the interview process, Lowery was the second interviewer. He gave Bakke an 86 which was the lowest score Lowery had given out that year. Bakke received his second rejection letter from UCD at the end of September 1973. The following month, Colvin filed a complaint on Bakkes behalf with HEWs Office of Civil Rights, but when HEW failed to send a timely response, Bakke decided to move forward. On June 20, 1974, Colvin brought suit on behalf of Bakke in Yolo County Superior Court. The complaint included a request that UCD admit Bakke into its program because the special admissions program rejected him because of his race. Bakke alleged that the special admissions process violated the U.S. Constitutions Fourteenth Amendment, the California Constitutions article I, section 21, and Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.   UCDs counsel filed a cross-declaration and asked the judge to find that the special program was constitutional and legal. They argued that Bakke would not have been admitted even if there had been no seats set aside for minorities.   On November 20, 1974, Judge Manker found the program unconstitutional and in violation of Title VI, no race or ethnic group should ever be granted privileges or immunities not given to every other race. Manker did not order to admit Bakke to UCD, but rather that the school reconsiders his application under a system that did not make determinations based on race. Both Bakke and the university appealed the judges ruling. Bakke because it was not ordered that he be admitted to UCD and the university because the special admissions program was ruled unconstitutional.   Supreme Court of California Due to the seriousness of the case, the Supreme Court of California ordered that the appeals be transferred to it. Having gained a reputation as being one of the most liberal appellate courts, it was assumed by many that it would rule on the side of the university. Surprisingly, the court upheld the lower-court ruling in a six to one vote. Justice Stanley Mosk wrote, No applicant may be rejected because of his race, in favor of another who is less qualified, as measured by standards applied without regard to race.   The lone dissenter, Justice Matthew O. Tobriner wrote, It is anomalous that the Fourteenth Amendment that served as the basis for the requirement that elementary and secondary schools be compelled to integrate should now be turned around to forbid graduate schools from voluntarily seeking that very objective. The court ruled that the university could no longer use race in the admissions process. It ordered that the university provide proof that Bakkes application would have been rejected under a program that was not based on race. When the university admitted that it would be unable to provide the proof, the ruling was amended to order Bakkes admission into the medical school.   That order, however, was stayed by U.S. Supreme Court in November 1976, pending the outcome of the petition for a writ of certiorari to be filed by the Regents of the University of California to the U.S. Supreme Court. The university filed a petition for writ of certiorari the following month.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Life Cycle of a Social Problem - 1478 Words

The Life Cycle of a Social Problem nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;A social problem is a condition that a group of people view as being undesirable. These can be a variety of different à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“problems.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬?They can occur in your community, school, church or any place that people interact with each other or an object. When a social problem arises there is a general way that they are handled. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The earliest of definition on how a social problem is reconized was made by Richard Fuller and Richard Myers. There cycle had three stages. The first stage was that the group had to some situation or behavior as a problem. Once they stated that there was a problem the next step was to transforms the situation or beahvior into a†¦show more content†¦This is the most important part of the life cycle of a social problem . This part have huge impact on how and what solutions are considered. During this debate there are a couple of various causal interpretations. One of these is a systematic attribution which the critical approach leans towards. In way of thinking the system itself is problematic and generates difficulties for the individual. This means that the issue is a problem and the person or group of people that brought forth this issue will have to show why it is a problem in the social world. This can difficult situation which is a norm when tryi ng to change something. The next way of interpreting a situation is called personal attribution. This is primarily used by dominated groups and also public officials. They use this because it is much easier to blame the person or group that has brought this issue into public light then to try to fixing it. Once all sides has said there peace the last part of this step is complex bargaining between both sides. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The last stage of the life cycle of a social problem is that of a resolution. Power is the number one way on how the solution is going to come about and what solutions are going to be even considered to be a way to solve the issue at hand. People in power determine four basic things. They first have the decision on if the issue will even reach theShow MoreRelatedThe Life Cycle of a Social Problem1494 Words   |  6 PagesThe Life Cycle of a Social Problem A social problem is a condition that a group of people view as being undesirable. These can be a variety of different â€Å"problems.†They can occur in your community, school, church or any place that people interact with each other or an object. When a social problem arises there is a general way that they are handled. The earliest of definition on how a social problem is recognized was made by Richard Fuller and Richard Myers. There cycle had three stages. 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Neil Simon Free Essays

Marvin Neil Simon was born on July 4, 1927, and grew up in Washington Heights at the northern tip of Manhattan. He attended New York University briefly (1944-45) and the University of Denver (1945-46) before joining the United States Army where he began his writing career working for the Army camp newspaper. After being discharged from the army, Simon returned to New York and took a job as a mailroom clerk for Warner Brother’s East Coast office. We will write a custom essay sample on Neil Simon or any similar topic only for you Order Now He and his brother Danny began writing comedy revues and eventually found their way into radio, then television. Simon received several Emmy Award nominations for his television writing, then moved on to the stage where he quickly established himself as America’s most successful commercial playwright by creating an unparalleled string of Broadway hits beginning with Come Blow Your Horn. During the 1966-67 seasons, Barefoot in the Park, The Odd Couple, Sweet Charity and The Star Spangled Girl were all running simultaneously. In 1973, following the death of his wife, Simon reached a low point in his career with two failures The Good Doctor (1973) and God’s Favorite (1976). A move to California, however, reinvigorated him and he produced a much more successful play later that year in California Suite. After marrying actress Marsha Mason, Simon went on to write Chapter Two (1977) which was considered by many critics to be his finest play to that date. His fourth musical, They’re Playing Our Song, proved fairly successful in 1979, but his next three plays (I Ought to Be in Pictures, Fools and a revised version of Little Me) all proved unsuccessful at the box office. During the course of his career, Simon has received around 27 awards. He got his first award in 1957 for your show of show and his latest one was in 2006 for American humor. How to cite Neil Simon, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Sixteen Most Significant Events In US History Between 1789 To 1975 Ess

Sixteen Most Significant Events in US History between 1789 to 1975 After a review of United States' history from 1789 to 1975, I have identified what I believe are the sixteen most significant events of that time period. The attached sheet identifies the events and places them in brackets by time period. The following discussion provides my reasoning for selecting each of the events and my opinion as to their relative importance in contrast to each other. Finally, I have concluded that of the sixteen events, the Civil War had the most significant impact on the history of the time period in which it occurred and remains the most significant event in American history. The discussion begins with bracket I covering the period from 1789-1850, and pairs the number one seed in the bracket "Mexican-American War" against the fourth seed "Louisiana Purchase". The second seed in the bracket "Marbury v Madison" is paired against the third seed "Monroe Doctrine". The purchase of Louisiana from France in 1803 was the most popular and momentous event of the Jefferson presidency. It had several significant economic and political implications on this period in history. From an economic perspective it doubled the size of the United States at a price of only fifteen million dollars. It allowed settlement beyond the Mississippi River in a territory that was rich in minerals and natural resources. It eliminated the United States' long struggle for control of the Mississippi River and its outlet to the sea, and as Jefferson stated, it freed America from European influence at its borders. In addition to these economic implications, the purchase also had historic political implications. The acquisition took place at a time when the government was still exploring the powers that the Constitution had granted it. Jefferson, himself, carefully deliberated whether the Constitution granted him the right to acquire territory for the purpose of expandi the Union. He reflected on the possible need for an amendment to the Constitution to justify the action. Finally, under intense pressure, he allowed the purchase and set an important precedent. His action established the power of the president to expand the borders of the United States under the existing powers of the Constitution. Despite the economic and political implications of the Louisiana Purchase, the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) had more significant historical implications on this time period. While disagreements between the two countries had been accumulating for two decades, the war was primarily the result of American feelings of "manifest destiny" to expand their borders. The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the war, granted the United States the regions of California, Nevada and Utah, and parts of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming. However, the significant result of the war on United States' history would be the controversy over whether the territories acquired should be slave or free. The country, at this time, was divided between proslave sentiment in the South and antislave sentiment in the North. Various attempts at compromise to settle the controversy, such as "The Compromise of 1850" and the "Kansas Nebraska Act" failed. Finally, when the issue could not be resol peacefully, the country was drawn into a civil war. It is evident that the outcome of the Mexican-American War became one of the most influential, indirect causes of the Civil War. Both the Louisiana Purchase and the Mexican-American War expanded United States borders and had beneficial economic impacts. However, the implications of expansion brought about by the Mexican-American War were more significant. While the Louisiana Purchase helped define the constitutional powers of the president, the Mexican-American War further exacerbated the slave issue which ultimately resulted in civil war. The Monroe Doctrine was the most important assertion to date of United States' foreign policy in history. The doctrine was delivered by President James Monroe as part of his annual message to Congress in 1823. This statement of position would dictate the policy of the United States in international affairs for years to come. The doctrine was in reaction to continual interference of European nations in the affairs of Latin America. It provided a framework for how the United States would deal with foreign intervention in the western hemisphere. It stated that Europe was to remain out of the affairs of countries in the western hemisphere and any attempt to intervene would be viewed as a threat to the United States. In return, the United States agreed to stay out of European affairs. Marbury v Madison is arguably one of the most important decisions by the Supreme Court in United States' history. The case, which

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Does Dancehall Music Affect The Society Negatively Essays

Does Dancehall Music Affect The Society Negatively Essays Does Dancehall Music Affect The Society Negatively Essay Does Dancehall Music Affect The Society Negatively Essay Does Dancehall Music Affect The Society Negatively A Greek philosopher once said, In argument, truth is born. Even though sometimes feelings and emotions come into play that confuse the issue at hand, usually an argument results in a new insight on the subject. Even if a person holds strong views that are unshaken by anything his adversary may say, he may nevertheless gain from the debate. It forces him to organize and analyze his views, leaving him with a clearer understanding of the subject than before. Further, his opponents arguments help him better appreciate his views and their differences. Finally, the argument forces both to look inwards, at their character and value system. For these reasons, I enjoy debating issues that are important to me and of which I hold strong views. One such issue receiving great national attention is the negative effect of Dancehall music on the society. While music and culture has always been important to the Jamaican community on a whole, and more specifically to the inner-city communities where the music is a major part of their socializing and recreational activity, the focus has been shifted from the point of origin of Dancehall music?s content to spotlight its destination, as well as cowardly intensify dancehall, society, music, views, negative, issue, people, origins, once, often, emotions, culture, argument, while, stigmas, one, important, ghettoes, genre, effect, class, between, accusation, year, wrong, world, way, violence, view, upper, sunday, subject, strong, songs, social

Monday, March 2, 2020

Thanking a Professor for Writing a Recommendation Letter

Thanking a Professor for Writing a Recommendation Letter Recommendation letters are vital to your graduate school application. Its likely that you will need at least three letters and it can be hard to determine who to ask. Once you have professors in mind, they  agree to write a letter, and your application is submitted, your next step should be a simple thank you note showing your appreciation. Letters of recommendation  are a lot of work for professors and they  are asked to write a number of them each year. Unfortunately, the majority of students dont bother with a follow-up. Why Send a Thank-You Note? At its most basic, taking a few minutes to send a thank-you note is a common act of courtesy for someone who has taken the time to do you a favor, but it can also work to your benefit.A thank-you note helps you stand out from the other students and will help keep you in the writers good graces. After all, you may need a letter again in the future for another school or even a job. Recommendation Letters An effective grad school recommendation letter explains the basis for the evaluation. It may be based on your performance in the classroom, your  work as a research assistant  or a mentee, or any other interaction you had with faculty. Professors often take great pains to write letters that honestly discuss your potential for graduate study. They will take the time to include  specific details and examples that illustrate why youre a  good fit for the graduate program. They will also consider other factors to suggest that you will be successful in grad school and beyond. Their letters are not simply saying, Shell do great. Writing helpful letters takes time, effort, and considerable thought. Professors do not take this lightly and theyre not required to do it.  Whenever someone does something of this magnitude for you, its nice to  show your appreciation for their time and attention. Offer a Simple Thank You Graduate school is a big deal  and your professors are playing an important role in helping you get there. A thank you letter need not be lengthy or overly detailed. A  simple note will do. You can do this as soon as the application is in, though you might also want to follow-up once youre accepted to share your good news. Your thank you letter can be a nice email. Its certainly the quicker option, but your professors may also appreciate a simple card. Mailing a letter is not out of style and a handwritten letter has a personal  touch. It shows that you wanted to spend extra time to thank them for the time they put into your letter. Now that youre convinced that sending a letter is a good idea, what do you write? Below is a sample but you should tailor it to your situation and your relationship with your professor. A Sample Thank You Note Dear Dr. Smith, Thank you for taking the time to write on my behalf for my graduate school application. I appreciate your support throughout this process. I will keep you updated about my progress in applying to graduate school. Thanks again for your assistance. It is much appreciated. Sincerely, Sally

Friday, February 14, 2020

Natural Gas Boiler Plant Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Natural Gas Boiler Plant - Essay Example Stack gas analysis sought to find the composition of the stack gas, proportion of excess air, the average capacity of stack gas heat, composition of fuel, inlet and outlet temperatures and air to fuel ratio. A gas combustion analyzer was used to achieve this objective together with computation of various equations as follows. A bomb calorimeter could be defined as a device for measuring energy which combusts a specified amount of fuel in excessive air, comparing it to a baseline fuel which is of known calorific value. This would be achieved by measuring the change in temperature after a settling time in a given quantity of water. From this, the fuel calorific value would be computed from the ratio difference between the maximum and minimum temperatures. Determining the overall efficiency of the natural gas boiler called for arranging the collected information numerically. Efficiency was first determined using the input vs. output method. In this method, the energy input into the boiler (making use of fuel mass flow rate and calorific value) and that output from the boiler (making use of steam and feed water enthalpies and steam mass flow rate) would be compared. This method yields equation (ii). Alternatively, the efficiency of the boiler could be determined through the heat loss method. This has two major components: the first employs stack gas heat capacity together with the input and output temperatures; while the second uses the heat lost through radiation and convection. Equation (iii) represents this method. After weighing the fuel, it would be placed inside a crucible. This would then be dipped into an oxygen-filled bomb under a pressure of about 35 atmospheres. This bomb would then be placed into a container with predetermined amount of water. This container would then be placed inside a jacket. The impellor on the lid of the jacket ensures that heat is evenly distributed throughout the water while the thermometer